Clinical UM Guideline


Subject:  Ancillary Services for Pregnancy Complications
Guideline #:  CG-MED-32Current Effective Date:  04/15/2014
Status:ReviewedLast Review Date:  02/13/2014

Description

This document addresses services for pregnancy complications such as treatment of antepartum thromboembolytic disease and treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum.

Note: Please see the following related document for additional information: 

Clinical Indications

Thromboembolytic Disease

Medically Necessary:

Continuous and/or intermittent subcutaneous or intravenous anti-coagulant (for example, unfractionated, low molecular weight heparin) therapy is considered medically necessary for treatment of antepartum thromboembolytic disease.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Medically Necessary:

Coding

The following codes for treatments and procedures applicable to this document are included below for informational purposes.  Inclusion or exclusion of a procedure, diagnosis or device code(s) does not constitute or imply member coverage or provider reimbursement policy. Please refer to the member's contract benefits in effect at the time of service to determine coverage or non-coverage of these services as it applies to an individual member.

HCPCS 
S9336Home infusion therapy, continuous anticoagulant infusion therapy (e.g., heparin), administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9340Home therapy; enteral nutrition; administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9341Home therapy; enteral nutrition via gravity; administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9342Home therapy; enteral nutrition via pump; administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9343Home therapy; enteral nutrition via bolus; administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9351Home infusion therapy, continuous or intermittent anti-emetic infusion therapy; administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9364Home infusion therapy, total parenteral nutrition (TPN); administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment including standard TPN formula, per diem
S9365Home infusion therapy, total parenteral nutrition (TPN); one liter per day, administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment including standard TPN formula, per diem
S9366Home infusion therapy, total parenteral nutrition (TPN); more than one liter but no more than two liters per day, administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment including standard TPN formula, per diem
S9367Home infusion therapy, total parenteral nutrition (TPN); more than two liters but no more than three liters per day, administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment including standard TPN formula, per diem
S9368Home infusion therapy, total parenteral nutrition (TPN); more than three liters per day, administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment including standard TPN formula, per diem
S9370Home therapy, intermittent antiemetic injection therapy; administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9372Home therapy; intermittent anticoagulant injection therapy (e.g., heparin); administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9373Home infusion therapy, hydration therapy; administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9374Home infusion therapy, hydration therapy; one liter per day, administrative services professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9375Home infusion therapy, hydration therapy; more than one liter but no more than two liters per day, administrative services professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9376Home infusion therapy, hydration therapy; more than two liters but no more than three liters per day, administrative services professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
S9377Home infusion therapy, hydration therapy; more than three liters per day, administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment, per diem
  
ICD-9 Diagnosis[For dates of service prior to 10/01/2014]
643.00-643.93Excessive vomiting in pregnancy
671.20-671.23Superficial thrombophlebitis in pregnancy
671.30-671.33Deep phlebothrombosis, antepartum
671.50-671.53Other phlebitis and thrombosis
671.90-671.93Unspecified venous complication
673.20-673.23Obstetrical blood-clot embolism
  
ICD-10 Diagnosis[For dates of service on or after 10/01/2014]
O21.0-O21.9Excessive vomiting in pregnancy
O22.20-O22.23Superficial thrombophlebitis in pregnancy
O22.30-O22.33Deep phlebothrombosis in pregnancy
O22.50-O22.53Cerebral venous thrombosis in pregnancy
O22.8X1-O22.8X9Other venous complications in pregnancy
O22.90-O22.93Venous complication in pregnancy, unspecified
O88.211-O88.219Thromboembolism in pregnancy
  
Discussion/General Information

Antepartum complications can compromise the mother and fetus. Maternal-fetal evaluation, early identification of problems, and ongoing care can contribute to an optimal birth outcome. Complications that may occur in the antepartum period include:

Previously, individuals were hospitalized for some of these complications, dependent upon their severity. Advances in technology and medication use have allowed a reduction of hospital admissions, a decrease of inpatient days (if admitted) and continuation of care in the home setting. Home nursing care, pharmacy services and durable medical equipment are often utilized to provide care in the home setting. Home infusion therapies generally consist of home nursing visits for maternal care and education. These services are considered skilled care and are administered by an agency licensed and in accordance to state and local laws. Examples of these therapies are:

During pregnancy, women have decreased anticoagulant activity, decreased fibrinolysis, and an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. This is most often due to the reduced venous flow or stasis in the lower extremities caused by compression of the inferior vena-cava and pelvic veins by the enlarging uterus. Anticoagulant therapy during pregnancy is limited to parenteral therapy as oral medications cross the placenta impacting the fetus. Both unfractionated and low molecular weight heparin are effective anticoagulant medications. Low molecular weight heparin may have fewer complications in the way of thrombopenia and osteoporosis.

Although 70-85% of all pregnant women experience some nausea and vomiting, hyperemesis gravidarum is the severe and intractable form of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy typically refractory to first line therapy. At this point, controlling the nausea and vomiting with more invasive therapy may be necessary. Intractable vomiting may compromise maternal nutritional status and result in adverse fetal consequences. TPN or enteral therapy might be utilized concurrently with antiemetic therapy.

Metoclopramide and ondansetron have been used as off-label treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum after failure of other modalities including diet and activity modifications; oral, rectal or intramuscular medications; and intravenous hydration. Several authors (Buttino, 2000; Klauser, 2011) have reported that subcutaneous metoclopramide is effective for the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum after failure of other treatments. Wegrzyniak and colleagues (2012) describe metoclopramide and ondansetron as treatment agents found to improve symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum without causing detrimental effects to the fetus.

In 2004, ACOG issued Clinical Management Guidelines: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy (reaffirmed in 2009) which includes:

The following recommendations are based on good and consistent scientific evidence (Level A):

The following recommendations are based on limited or inconsistent scientific evidence (Level B):

The following recommendations are based primarily on consensus and expert opinion (Level C):

Levels of Recommendations Definitions

Level A — Recommendations are based on good and consistent scientific evidence.
Level B — Recommendations are based on limited or inconsistent scientific evidence.
Level C — Recommendations are based primarily on consensus and expert opinion.

In addition to the major recommendations noted above, the guidelines contains a clinical algorithm titled, "Pharmacologic treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy" which indicates that metoclopramide and ondansetron could be used after failure of other therapies. ACOG also stated the following in regards to metoclopramide and ondansetron:

Medications for which there are some safety data but no conclusive evidence of efficacy include anticholinergics and metoclopramide. Additionally, evidence is limited on the safety and efficacy of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 inhibitors (for example, ondansetron) for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy; however, because of their effectiveness in reducing chemotherapy-induced emesis, their use appears to be increasing.

Definitions

Off-label: Utilization of a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug for uses other than those listed in the FDA approved label.

References

Peer Reviewed Publications:

  1. Bates SM. Preventing thrombophilia-related complications of pregnancy: an update. Expert Rev Hematol. 2013;6(3):287-300.
  2. Bates SM, Ginsberg JS. How we manage venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. Blood. 2002; 100(10):3470-3478.
  3. Buttino L Coleman SK, Bergauer NK, et al. Home subcutaneous metoclopramide therapy for hyperemesis gravidarum. J Perinatol. 2000; 20(6):359-362.
  4. Davis SM, Branch DW. Thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy: who and how? Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2010; 37(2):333-343.
  5. Fell DB, Dodds L, Joseph KS, et al. Risk factors for hyperemesis gravidarum requiring hospital admission during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 107(2 Pt 1):277-284.
  6. Goodwin TM. Hyperemesis gravidarum. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2008; 35(3):401-417.
  7. Greer IA. Anticoagulants in pregnancy. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2006; 21(1):57-65.
  8. Hamaoui E, Hamaoui M. Nutritional assessment and support during pregnancy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2003; 32(1):59-121.
  9. James AH. Prevention and management of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Prevention and management of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Am J Med. 2007; 120(10 Suppl 2):S26-34.
  10. Klauser CK, Fox NS, Istwan N, et al. Treatment of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy with subcutaneous medications. Am J Perinatol. 2011; 28(9):715-721.
  11. Lee NM, Saha S. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2011; 40(2):309-334, vii.
  12. Phillips OP. Venous thromboembolism in the pregnant woman. J Reprod Med. 2003; 48(11 Suppl):921-929.
  13. Sanu O, Lamont RF. Hyperemesis gravidarum: pathogenesis and the use of antiemetic agents. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011; 12(5):737-748.
  14. Schoenbeck D, Nicolle A, Newbegin K, et al. The use of a scoring system to guide thromboprophylaxis in a high-risk pregnant population. Thrombosis. 2011: 652796. 
  15. Sonkusare S. The clinical management of hyperemesis gravidarum. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011; 283(6):1183-1192.
  16. Veenendaal MV, van Abeelen AF, Painter RC, et al. Consequences of hyperemesis gravidarum for offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2011; 118(11):1302-1313.
  17. Wegrzyniak LJ, Repke JT, Ural SH. Treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 5(2):78-84.

Government Agency, Medical Society and Other Authoritative Publications:

  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Clinical Management Guidelines: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. 2004 (reaffirmed 2009); Number 52. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?ss=15&doc_id=10939. Accessed on December 31, 2013.
  2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Clinical Management Guidelines: Prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. 2007 (reaffirmed 2012); Number 84. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?doc_id=11429&nbr=5947. Accessed on December 31, 2013.
  3. American Hospital Formulary Service® (AHFS). AHFS Drug Information 2013®. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists®, 2013.
  4. Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride. In: DrugPoints System [electronic version]. Truven Health Analytics, Greenwood Village, CO. Updated November 19, 2013. Available at: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed on: January 16, 2014.
  5. Jewell D, Young G. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; (1): CD000145.
  6. Gates S, Brocklehurst P, Davis LJ. Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease in pregnancy and the early postnatal period. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; (2):CD001689.
  7. Metoclopramide. In: DrugPoints System [electronic version]. Truven Health Analytics, Greenwood Village, CO. Updated December 23, 2013Available at: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed on: January 16, 2014.
  8. Ondansetron Hydrochloride. In: DrugPoints System [electronic version]. Truven Health Analytics, Greenwood Village, CO. Updated January 13, 2014. Available at: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed on: January 16, 2014.
  9. Prochlorperazine. In: DrugPoints System [electronic version]. Truven Health Analytics, Greenwood Village, CO. Updated December 17, 2013. Available at: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com . Accessed on: January 16, 2014.
  10. Promethazine. In: DrugPoints System [electronic version]. Truven Health Analytics, Greenwood Village, CO. Updated December 17, 2013. Available at: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed on: January 16, 2014.
  11. Reglan (Metoclopramide Hydrochloride). Deerfield, IL. Baxter Healthcare Corp. November 2010. Available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2010/017862s063lbl.pdf. Accessed on December 31, 2013.
  12. Zofran (Ondansetron Hydrochloride). Research Triangle Park, NC. GlaxoSmithKline. November 2012. Available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/020007s043lbl.pdf. Accessed on December 31, 2013.
Index

Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Pregnancy Complications
Thromboembolytic Disease

History
StatusDateAction
Reviewed02/13/2014Medical Policy & Technology Assessment Committee (MPTAC) review. Discussion and Reference sections updated.
Reviewed02/14/2013MPTAC review. Description (note), Discussion and Reference sections updated. Definition section added.
Reviewed02/16/2012MPTAC review. References updated.
Reviewed02/17/2011MPTAC review. Discussion/Background and References updated.
Reviewed02/25/2010Medical Policy & Technology Assessment Committee (MPTAC) review. Discussion/background and references updated.
Reviewed02/26/2009MPTAC review. Place of service removed. References updated.
Reviewed02/21/2008MPTAC review. References updated.  
Reviewed03/08/2007MPTAC review. 
 04/01/2007Updated coding section with 04/01/2007 HCPCS changes.
New03/23/2006MPTAC initial guideline development.