Clinical UM Guideline


Subject:  Eating and Feeding Disorder Treatment
Guideline #:  CG-BEH-05Current Effective Date:  05/11/2015
Status:RevisedLast Review Date:  05/07/2015

Description

This document provides medical necessity criteria for levels of care relating to eating and feeding disorder treatment. Treatment of eating and feeding disorders is dependent on an eating and feeding disorder diagnosis based on current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM or ICD-10-CM) criteria.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) has expanded the types of conditions classified as Feeding and Eating Disorders. The levels of care described below provide guidance about the characteristics of each level of care that is needed to treat any feeding and eating disorder. Anorexia nervosa receives substantial attention because this condition can become apparent as a life threatening condition requiring hospital care. The guideline is called eating and feeding disorder because anorexia nervosa has long been called an eating disorder. Bulimia nervosa also may present as a medical emergency needing hospitalization. Services such as residential care, Partial Hospital Program (PHP) and Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) can make essential contributions to recovery. Outpatient care plays a very important role in the treatment of all feeding and eating disorders. Disorders such as binge eating disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake, pica and rumination disorder are thought to be treated largely with individual therapy. Obesity is not included as a mental disorder in DSM-5. Obesity is associated with a wide range of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of obesity (excess body fat) in any given individual.

There is variation in the availability of services in different geographic and regional areas. If an indicated service is not available within a member's community at the level of service indicated by the criteria, authorization may be given for those services at the next highest available level. Continuing any level of care depends on the persistence of findings that lead to admission as well as attention to the person-centered treatment plan so that as much medical progress as each person's circumstances allow is made toward shared goals.

Note: Please see the following related documents for additional information:

Clinical Indications

Acute Inpatient

Medically Necessary:

Severity of Illness Criteria
Acute Inpatient Treatment would be considered medically necessary when the member has one or more of the following:

  1. Physical changes caused by the eating disorder and with one or more of the following:
    • For adults, heart rate less than 40 beats per minute (BPM) or blood pressure less than 90/60mm Hg or temperature less than 97.0 F; or
    • For children and adolescents, heart rate near 40 BPM or orthostatic pulse or blood pressure changes (greater than 20 BPM increase in heart rate or 10-20mm Hg drop in blood pressure) or blood pressure less than 80/50mm Hg; or
    • For adults, blood sugar (glucose) less than 60 mg/dl; potassium less than 3 mEq/L; or other electrolyte imbalance; or
    • For children and adolescents, potassium less than 3mEq/L, or magnesium less than 1.5 mg/dL or phosphorous less than 1.5 mg/dL; or
    • Dehydration; or
    • Hepatic, renal or cardiovascular organ failure; or
    • Poorly controlled diabetes needing acute treatment; or
    • Uncontrollable vomiting or hematemesis (vomiting blood); OR
  2. Increased suicide risk which includes plan with high lethality or intent; suicidal ideation or a recent suicide attempt or aborted attempt with other  risk factors for suicide; OR
  3. For adults, weight as a percentage of healthy body weight: less than 85% or body mass index (BMI) less than 16.
    For children and adolescents, weight as a percentage of healthy body weight less than 85% or BMI percentile less than 5%; OR
  4. Acute weight decline with food refusal even if not less than 85% of healthy body weight or BMI percentile less than 5%; OR
  5. Structured need for eating/gaining weight: needs supervision during and after all meals or nasogastric/special feeding modality; OR
  6. Purging behavior (laxatives and diuretics):
    • Needs supervision during and after all meals and in bathrooms; or
    • Unable to control multiple daily episodes of purging that are severe, persistent and disabling, despite appropriate trials of outpatient care, even if routine lab test results reveal no obvious metabolic abnormalities; OR
  7. Co-occurring disorders: Any existing psychiatric and/or substance abuse disorder that would require hospitalization; OR
  8. Motivation to recover, including cooperativeness, insight and ability to control obsessive thoughts:
    • Very poor to poor motivation; or
    • Member preoccupied with intrusive repetitive thoughts; or
    • Member uncooperative with treatment or cooperative only in highly structured environment; OR
  9. Environmental stress:
    • Severe family conflict or problems or absence of family so member is unable to receive structured treatment in home; or
    • Member lives alone without adequate support.

Continued Stay Criteria
Acute Inpatient Treatment would be considered medically necessary when the member either has 1 and 2 or has 3:

  1. Continues to meet Severity of Illness criteria; AND
  2. Progress with the eating disorder symptoms and behaviors is documented and the member is cooperative with treatment and meeting treatment plan goals; if progress is not occurring, then the treatment plan is being re-evaluated and amended with goals that are still achievable; OR
  3. There is no access to residential care or partial hospital care if this is needed.

Not Medically Necessary:

Eating and feeding disorder acute inpatient treatment is considered not medically necessary when the above criteria are not met.

Residential Treatment Center (RTC)

Medically Necessary:

Severity of Illness Criteria
Residential Treatment Center would be considered medically necessary when the member has one of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 and also have 7 and 8:

  1. If  weight restoration is the goal,
    Adult weight is less than 85% of estimated healthy weight or BMI less than 16.
    For children and adolescents, 85% of estimated healthy body weight or BMI percentile less than 5%; OR
  2. There are no signs or symptoms of acute medical instability that would require daily physician evaluation, intravenous fluids or multiple daily lab tests; OR
  3. Structured treatment with 24 hour nursing needed for eating/gaining weight: Needs supervision at all meals or will restrict eating; OR
  4. Purging behavior (laxatives and diuretics): The member can ask for and use support from others or can use some cognitive or behavioral skills to stop from purging; OR
  5. Co-occurring disorders: Another psychiatric or substance use disorder is present that also requires 24 hour structured treatment; OR
  6. If suicidality is present, the level of risk can be safely managed at this level of care; AND
  7. Motivation to recover, including cooperativeness, insight and ability to control obsessive thoughts:
    • Poor to fair motivation or
    • Member preoccupied with intrusive repetitive thoughts four to six hours a day; or
    • Member cooperative with treatment in a highly structured environment; AND
  8. Environmental stress: Severe family conflict or problems or absence of family so member is unable to receive structured treatment in home; member lives alone without adequate support.

Continued Stay Criteria (CS)
Residential Treatment would be considered medically necessary when the member either has 1 and 2 or has 3:

  1. Continues to meet Severity of Illness criteria; AND
  2. Progress with the eating disorder symptoms and behaviors is documented and the member is cooperative with treatment and meeting treatment plan goals; if progress is not occurring, then the treatment plan is being re-evaluated and amended with goals that are still achievable; OR
  3. There is no access to partial hospital care if this is needed.

Not Medically Necessary:

Eating and feeding disorder residential treatment center (RTC) treatment is considered not medically necessary when the above criteria are not met.

Partial Hospitalization Program (PHP)

Medically Necessary:

Severity of Illness Criteria
Partial Hospitalization Program would be considered medically necessary when the member has one or more of the following (1-8) and 9 and 10:

  1. If weight restoration is the goal, the member's weight is greater than 80% of estimated healthy body weight range; OR
  2. Structure for part or most of the day is needed to eat/gain weight; OR
  3. Co-occurring disorders: if another psychiatric or substance use disorder is present it can also be appropriately managed at this level of care; OR
  4. Purging behavior (including but not limited to vomiting, laxatives, diuretics): The member can reduce the incidence of purging in this setting and does not have significant medical complications; OR
  5. Environmental stress: Others are able to provide at least limited support and structure; OR
  6. Motivation to recover, including cooperativeness, insight and ability to control obsessive thoughts: partial motivation; member preoccupied with intrusive repetitive thoughts more than three hours a day; OR
  7. Geographic availability of treatment program: Partial hospitalization treatment program is convenient for patient to participate from home; OR
  8. Suicidality can be safely managed at this level of care; AND
  9. There are no comorbid psychiatric disorders that require hospitalization; AND
  10. There are no signs or symptoms of acute medical instability that would require daily physician evaluation, intravenous fluids or nasogastric feeding, or multiple daily lab tests.

Continued Stay Criteria
Partial Hospitalization Program would be considered medically necessary when the member has all of the following:

  1. Continues to meet Severity of Illness criteria; AND
  2. Progress with the eating disorder symptoms and behaviors is documented and the member is cooperative with treatment and meeting treatment plan goals; if progress is not occurring, then the treatment plan is being re-evaluated and amended with goals that are still achievable.

Not Medically Necessary:

Eating and feeding disorder partial hospitalization program (PHP) treatment is considered not medically necessary when the above criteria are not met.

Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP)

Medically Necessary:

Severity of Illness Criteria
Intensive Outpatient Program would be considered medically necessary when the member has one or more of the following:

  1. If weight restoration is the goal, the member's weight is over 80% of estimated healthy body weight range but there are no signs or symptoms of acute medical instability that would require intensive medical monitoring; OR
  2. Comorbid psychiatric disorders are controlled or stable enough for the primary focus of treatment to be the eating disorder; OR
  3. If suicidal ideation is present, the risk is low enough for the member to be safely treated at this level of care; OR
  4. The member has sufficient structure outside of this program to eat/gain weight; OR
  5. Purging behavior (laxatives and diuretics):
    • The member can reduce purging and does not have significant medical complications; OR
  6. Motivation to recover:
    • The individual has fair motivation to recover, including cooperativeness, insight and ability to control obsessive thoughts; OR
  7. Environmental stress:
    • Others are able to provide adequate emotional and practical support and structure.
      Should also have all of the following:
  8. Significant impairment in one or more spheres of personal functioning; AND
  9. The clear potential to regress further without specific IOP services; AND
  10. The need for direct monitoring less than daily but more than weekly; AND
  11. Specific deficits that are directly related to services rendered; AND
  12. Significant variability in day to day capacity to cope with life situations.

Continued Stay Criteria
Intensive Outpatient Program would be considered medically necessary when the member has all of the following:

  1. Continues to meet Severity of Illness criteria; AND
  2. Progress with the eating disorder symptoms and behaviors is documented and the member is cooperative with treatment and meeting treatment plan goals; if progress is not occurring, then the treatment plan is being re-evaluated and amended with goals that are still achievable.

Not Medically Necessary:

Eating and feeding disorder intensive outpatient program (IOP) treatment is considered not medically necessary when the above criteria are not met.

Outpatient Treatment

Medically Necessary:

Severity of Illness Criteria
Outpatient Treatment would be considered medically necessary when the member has one or more of the following:

  1. Medically stable; OR
  2. Specific symptoms or disturbances of mood and/or behavior are present, with functional impairment, which are consistent with the DSM/ICD diagnosis listed, and these disturbances/symptoms are likely to improve with treatment; OR
  3. If weight restoration is the goal, the member's weight is over 85% of estimated healthy body weight range and there are no signs or symptoms of acute medical instability that would require more extensive medical monitoring;
    OR
  4. Self- sufficient in eating/gaining weight; OR
  5. If a comorbid psychiatric disorder or substance use disorder is present, it is also appropriate for outpatient treatment; OR
  6. The member demonstrates motivation for treatment and is capable of benefiting from the treatment approach planned; OR
  7. Fair to good motivation to recover, including cooperativeness, insight and ability to control obsessive thoughts; OR
  8. Others able to provide adequate emotional and practical support and structure; OR
  9. Lives near treatment setting.

Note: The severity of illness factors important for distinguishing between PHP, IOP and outpatient is the members' level of insight, social support, motivation, and ability to self-control eating disorder symptoms.

Continued Stay Criteria
Outpatient Treatment would be considered medically necessary when the member has all of the following:

  1. Continues to meet Severity of Illness criteria; AND
  2. Progress with the eating disorder symptoms and behaviors is documented and the member is cooperative with treatment and meeting treatment plan goals; if progress is not occurring, then the treatment plan is being re-evaluated and amended with goals that are still achievable.

Not Medically Necessary:

Eating and feeding disorder outpatient treatment is considered not medically necessary when the above criteria are not met.

Coding

Coding edits for medical necessity review are not implemented for this guideline. Where a more specific policy or guideline exists, that document will take precedence and may include specific coding edits and/or instructions. Inclusion or exclusion of a procedure, diagnosis or device code(s) does not constitute or imply member coverage or provider reimbursement policy. Please refer to the member's contract benefits in effect at the time of service to determine coverage or non-coverage of these services as it applies to an individual member.

Discussion/General Information

Eating disorders are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or behaviors related to eating. This disturbance results in altered consumption or absorption of food. Signification impairments are seen in physical health and psychosocial functioning. The specific disorder most likely to be life threatening is anorexia nervosa. Individuals with anorexia lose more weight than is healthy for their age and height. The disorder is associated with an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming "fat" even when an individual with anorexia is under weight for height and age. Anorexia is characterized by a disturbance in the way body weight or shape are experienced such that body weight has an excessive influence on self-evaluation or the affected individual fails to adequately recognize the seriousness of being underweight.

Many individuals with anorexia also have bulimia symptoms. Bulimia nervosa is an illness in which an individual binges on food or has regular episodes of overeating and feels a loss of control. The individual then uses different methods such as vomiting or abusing laxatives to prevent weight gain. In the United States it is estimated that approximately 0.5% of adolescent girls have anorexia nervosa and 1%-2% meet diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa (Rosen, 2010). Medical conditions associated with eating disorders can include gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine disorders, other psychiatric disorders including substance abuse, and cardiac conditions including blood pressure and pulse changes. Although about 50% of individuals with child and adolescent onset eating disorders will recover and many of the remaining population improve, a troubling minority of individuals will have a chronic illness often associated with malnutrition. Some people with chronic eating disorders will need custodial services. Anorexia nervosa is associated with excess mortality relative to the general population with sudden death and suicide common causes of death.

A reliable determination of expected body weight is critical for diagnosis and management of eating disorders. A commonly agreed upon method for expected body weight calculation such as the BMI percentile method is recommended for children and adolescents (Le Grange, 2012; DSM-5). Weight estimation methods for adults include the BMI and Weight for Stature method. According to Golden and colleagues (2012), the Weight for Stature method and BMI methods are not necessarily equivalent. These workers concluded that it remains to be determined which method better predicts meaningful clinical outcomes. Healthy body weight is a calculation based on height, gender, and age. BMI is a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to adult men and women. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) in their 2006 guideline for Treatment of Patients with Eating Disorders uses weight as a percentage of healthy body weight in determining appropriate levels of care for eating disorders. The APA notes that weight level alone should not be used as a sole criterion from discharge from one level of care to another and other factors should be appropriately considered. The DSM-5 (2013) cites BMI in determining appropriate levels of care for eating disorders. At this time, there is no concrete conversion of BMI to percentage of healthy body weight.

Treatment for disorders such as binge eating disorder and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), pica and rumination disorder is often individual therapy given in outpatient settings (Hay, 2014). Treatment of these other feeding and eating disorders outside of the office setting is related to rare instances of medical complications such as life threatening fluid and electrolyte disturbance similar to those seen with anorexia (see severity of illness criteria for examples) and risk of suicide (described with each level of care). The levels of care described in this guideline describe illness features and the services necessary to manage any feeding and eating disorder. Regardless of the feeding and eating disorder diagnosis, outpatient treatment, including family therapy in the case of anorexia, is critical to the healing process.

Feeding and eating disorder treatment should not be primarily for the avoidance of incarceration of the member or to satisfy a programmatic length of stay (refers to a pre-determine number of days or visits for a program's length instead of an individualized determination of how long a member needs to be in that program). There should be a reasonable expectation that the member's illness, condition, or level of functioning will be stabilized, improved, or maintained through treatment known to be effective for the member's illness.

In some geographical areas, state regulations allow non-physicians to treat members at inpatient facilities. In these documents, such non-physicians with prescriptive authority who are operating within the scope of their license may be substituted where the criteria specifies a physician.

At each level of care, different facilities and programs offer and provide different services. However, common features should exist across all levels of care. For example, all levels of care should coordinate care with other clinicians, such as the outpatient psychiatrist, therapist, and the member's primary care physician, providing treatment to the member. Coordination of care is also useful when clinicians provide treatment to others such as family members. Treatment should be individualized rather than determined by a programmatic time frame. The programming should be consistent with the member's language, cognitive, speech and/or hearing abilities. If medication is being used it should be documented what is being used. If medication is not being used when an indication exists, there should be documentation as to why it is not being used. Discharge planning should be in place across all levels of care including identification of the range of community/family resources.

The staff at each level of care should be able to provide care that is appropriate to the clinical needs of each member receiving treatment. The staff members should be properly licensed to provide the treatment requested. At the inpatient and residential treatment center levels of care, guidance about critical documentation of treatment is provided by a physician (or other clinicians with prescriptive authority practicing as guided by a physician). In a partial hospitalization program, programs operate under the direction of a physician and a program leader. The physician provides supervision of the clinical needs of the individuals enrolled in the program; the program leader is responsible for the overall clinical and administrative operations of the program. The core clinical staff members may include: psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, counselors, addiction counselors, medical and nursing personnel. Occupational, recreational and creative arts therapists may also provide services. Paraprofessionals, non-degreed individuals, students and interns may also be included. There are differences in primary responsibility for the care and how often members are seen at each type of facility or program. Acute inpatient hospital care involves direct physician involvement, often on a daily basis, and 24-hour skilled nursing services. In a residential treatment center, after an evaluation by a physician or equivalent professional upon admission, there should be visits documented weekly. In a partial hospitalization program, a physician should have a face to face meeting with the member on admission, but thereafter as clinically indicated, at least 1 time per week. Physicians should also be available for consultation with other staff and for face to face evaluations with members during program hours or by telephone outside of program hours to be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. In the intensive outpatient program, a psychiatric evaluation by a physician should be done by the third day of attendance (unless stepping down from a higher level of care) and thereafter as needed.

There are also distinct differences between facilities and programs in other types of services provided. At the inpatient level of care there should be a multidisciplinary assessment with a person-centered treatment plan addressing nutritional, psychological, social, medical, and substance abuse needs. Relevant medical tests including lab tests (electrolytes, chemistry, complete blood count [CBC], thyroid) and electrocardiogram (ECG) may be done on admission and follow up tests done for any abnormality requiring intervention. Individual therapy may be provided at least once per week, family therapy at least once per week for adults and twice per week for children/adolescents (unless contraindicated, with documentation for the reason). There should also be a nutritional plan with target weight range and refeeding plan to achieve gain of one to two pounds per week (if low body weight is a reason for admission).

In a residential treatment center, a physical exam and lab tests should be done within 72 hours if not done prior to admission. Within 7 days, an individualized problem-focused treatment plan should be completed, including nutritional, psychological, social, medical and substance abuse needs to be developed based on a complex bio-psychosocial evaluation, and this needs to be reviewed at least once a week for progress. Treatment would include the following at least once per day and each lasting 60-90 minutes: community/milieu group therapy, group psychotherapy and activity group therapy plus at least once weekly individual therapy. Family supports should be identified and contacted within 72 hours and family/primary support person included in family therapy at least weekly for adults, twice weekly for children and adolescents, unless contraindicated.

In a partial hospitalization program, multidisciplinary treatment should be provided at least 6 hours a day, 5 days a week. All services should consist of active treatment that specifically addresses the presenting problems of the individuals served and realistic goals that can be accomplished within the duration of treatment. Examples of active treatment include: group psychotherapy, psycho-educational (theme-specific) groups, skills training, expressive/activity therapies, medication evaluation/management, individual and family therapy. .           Involvement of significant others and/or peers (as available and with the signed consent when appropriate) should be addressed at admission and reflected in the program services offered. Engaging the family and/or support persons (for example, a significant other) including family therapy (for adults, children and adolescents at least once a week) should be expected, unless contraindicated as described in the medical records. Clearly delineated procedures must be present to address any other medical needs such as substance withdrawal. A member of the clinical staff serves in a case management capacity to coordinate the member's treatment within the program, and will work consistently with the individual (and family as indicated) and follow the course of clinical treatment from admission through discharge. A clinical record is to be maintained for each member admitted. This has to include the following elements: initial assessment, physician orders and certification of need for this level of care, psychiatric assessment, treatment plan addressing only the needs which are of such severity that the intensity of partial hospitalization program is needed with clear goals which are achievable within the timeframe of the program, medication management, progress notes and a discharge summary.

In an intensive outpatient program, treatment services should be offered at least 3 treatment hours per day at least 3 times per week. With symptom improvement, a gradual decrease in services per week may occur to help plan for successful discharge and greater independent functioning. In some cases an evidence-based, time-limited treatment protocol is provided for a given condition which may include a given number of sessions over several weeks. A comprehensive clinical assessment is done on admission that includes cognition/mental status, emotional/psychological function, activities of daily living, historical data (including social, medical and occupational histories), cultural issues, spirituality and medical screening. The treatment plan will be updated and individualized following previous treatment either from a higher or lower level of care. All services should consist of active treatment that specifically addresses the presenting problems of the individuals served and realistic goals that can be accomplished within the duration of treatment. Examples of active treatment include: group psychotherapy, psycho-educational (theme-specific) groups, skills training, expressive/activity therapies, medication evaluation/management, individual and family therapy. For children and adolescents, family therapy should be provided at least 1 time each week, unless clinically contraindicated. Family therapy, especially for children and adolescents, and group therapy is individualized to meet the member's needs, based on specific clinical needs or functional level. The staff should have experience with the patient-specific care issues as defined by program function and applicable state regulations. A clinical record is to be maintained for each member admitted. This has to include the following elements: initial assessment, physician orders and certification of need for this level of care, psychiatric assessment, treatment plan addressing only the needs which are of such severity that the intensity of intensive outpatient program is needed with clear goals which are achievable within the timeframe of the program, medication management, progress toes and a discharge summary.

For members in an outpatient program, treatment goals should target resolution of specific symptoms or stabilization of mood and/or behavior consistent with the DSM/ICD diagnoses listed and also target specific domains of functional impairment. If substance abuse/dependence is a diagnosis or indicated to be present, a substance use evaluation should be performed and treatment offered. Community/natural supports and resources should be identified and utilized or skills to develop community/natural supports is a treatment goal, including school/work interventions, self-help or diagnosis specific support groups, spiritual/religious, and community recreational activities. Treatment should not be duplicative of services being provided by another clinician for the same reasons/diagnoses.

Definitions

Acute Inpatient: Treatment in a hospital unit that includes 24-hour nursing and daily active treatment under the direction of a physician.

Residential Treatment Center: Twenty-four (24) hours per day specialized treatment and requires a minimum of one physician visit per week in a facility-based setting.

Partial Hospitalization Program: Structured, short-term treatment modality that offers nursing care and active treatment in a program that is operable no less than 6 hours per day, 5 days per week.

Intensive Outpatient Program: Short-term treatment modality that provides a combination of individual, group and family therapy.

Outpatient Treatment: A level of care in which a mental health professional licensed to practice independently provides care to individuals in an outpatient, often an office, setting.

References

Peer Reviewed Publications:

  1. Golden NH, Yang W, Jacobson MS, et al. Expected body weight in adolescents: comparison between weight-for-stature and BMI methods. Pediatrics. 2012; 130(6):e1607-1613.
  2. Gowers SG, Clark AF, Roberts C, et al. A randomised controlled multicentre trial of treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa including assessment of cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability - the TOuCAN trial. Health Technol Assess. 2010; 14(15):1-98.
  3. Gowers SG, Clark A, Roberts C, et al. Clinical effectiveness of treatments for anorexia nervosa in adolescents: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2007; 191:427-435.
  4. Hartmann A, Weber S, Herpertz S, et al. Psychological treatment for anorexia nervosa: a meta-analysis of standardized mean change. Psychother Psychosom. 2011; 80(4):216-226.
  5. Hebebrand J, Himmelmann GW, Wewetzer C, et al. Body weight in acute anorexia nervosa and at follow-up assessed with percentiles for the body mass index: implications of a low body weight at referral. Int J Eat Disord. 1996; 19(4):347-357.
  6. Le Grange D, Doyle PM, Swanson SA, et al. Calculation of expected body weight in adolescents with eating disorders. Pediatrics. 2012; 129(2):e438-446.
  7. Le Grange D, Fitzsimmons-Craft EE, Crosby RD, et al. Predictors and moderators of outcome for severe and enduring anorexia nervosa. Behav Res Ther. 2014; 56:91-98.
  8. Lemmens HJ, Brodsky JB, Bernstein DP. Estimating ideal body weight--a new formula. Obes Surg. 2005; 15(7):1082-1083.
  9. Madden S, Miskovic-Wheatley J, Wallis A, et al. A randomized controlled trial of in-patient treatment for anorexia nervosa in medically unstable adolescents. Psychol Med. 2014; 45:1-13.

 Government Agency, Medical Society, and Other Authoritative Publications:

  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Management of eating disorders. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment. 2006 April. Publication No. 06-E010. Available at: http://archive.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/eatingdisorders/eatdis.pdf. Accessed on May 08, 2015.
  2. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for treatment of patients with eating disorders. 2006. Available at: http://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/eatingdisorders.pdf. Accessed on May 08, 2015.
  3. American Psychiatric Association. Guideline watch: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Eating Disorders. 2012. Available at: http://psychiatryonline.org/pdfaccess.ashx?ResourceID=5391825&PDFSource=6. Accessed on May 08, 2015.
  4. Association for Ambulatory Behavioral Health Care. Standards and Guidelines for Partial Hospitalization Programs. 5th Ed. Portsmouth, VA. 2012.
  5. American Society of Addiction Medicine. Public Policy Statement on Co-occurring Addictive and Psychiatric Disorders. 2000. Available at: http://www.asam.org/docs/publicy-policy-statements/1co-occurring-disorders-12-00.pdf?sfvrsn=0. Accessed on May 08, 2015.
  6. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. Arlington, VA. 2013. Available at: http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/book.aspx?bookid=556. Accessed on May 08, 2015.
  7. Hay P, Chinn D, Forbes D, et al. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of eating disorders. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2014; 48(11): 977-1008.
  8. Mee-Lee, D. The ASAM Criteria: Treatment Criteria for Addictive, Substance-Related, and Co-Occurring Conditions. American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2013. pp 250 and 266-267.
  9. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Clinical Guideline 9. Eating disorders Core interventions in the treatment and management of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related eating disorders. January 2004. Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg009. Accessed on May 08, 2015.
  10. Rosen DS. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence. Identification and management of eating disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2010; 126(6):1240-1253.
Websites for Additional Information
  1. Centers for Disease Control. Growth charts. September 2010. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/. Accessed on May 08, 2015.
Index

Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Eating disorder

History

Status

Date

Action

Revised05/07/2015Medical Policy & Technology Assessment Committee (MPTAC) review.
Revised04/30/2015Behavioral Health Subcommittee review. Multiple clarifications to Medical Necessity Criteria. Updated Description and Discussion/General Information, Definitions and References. Title changed to Eating and Feeding Disorder Treatment.
Revised08/14/2014MPTAC review.
Revised08/08/2014Behavioral Health Subcommittee review. Multiple clarifications to Medical Necessity Criteria. Updated Description, Discussion/General Information and References. Title changed to "Feeding and Eating Disorder Treatment."
Revised02/13/2014MPTAC review.
Revised02/07/2014Behavioral Health Subcommittee review. Removed indications of Axis from Clinical Indications. Updated References.
New08/08/2013MPTAC review.
New07/26/2013Behavioral Health Subcommittee review. Initial document development. Clarification to Clinical Indications Partial Hospitalization Program, Intensity of Service. Updated References. The Behavioral Health Medical Necessity Criteria effective January 1, 2013 was split apart into specific subject matter clinical UM guidelines.