Clinical UM Guideline


Subject:  Cataract Removal Surgery for Adults
Guideline #:  CG-SURG-40Current Effective Date:  07/15/2014
Status:NewLast Review Date:  05/15/2014

Description

This guideline addresses cataract extraction in adults as a treatment for visually-significant cataracts, when lens removal is needed to allow better visualization of the retina or as a component of another surgical procedure. This document does not address congenital cataracts.

Note: For information concerning related topics, see:

Clinical Indications

Medically Necessary:

Cataract removal surgery in adults is considered medically necessary for any of the following:

  1. The lens displays signs of cataract formation and the following criteria are met:
    1. Visual disability related to reduced visual acuity (Snellen of 20/40 or worse); OR
    2. Glare testing confirms decreased visual acuity under glare conditions using low light and reduces the visual acuity to a Snellen of 20/60 or worse; AND
    3. Surgery is reasonably expected to result in improved visual function.
      OR
  2. The individual has an underlying lens-related or other ophthalmologic disease for which cataract removal is indicated, including but not limited to the following:
    1. Phacomorphic glaucoma; OR
    2. Phacolytic glaucoma; OR
    3. Phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis; OR
    4. Dislocated or subluxated lens; OR
    5. Angle closure glaucoma; OR
    6. Elevated IOP associated with diagnosis of plateau iris configuration; OR
    7. Uncontrolled pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.
      OR
  3. Lens removal is needed to allow better visualization of the retina or as a component of another surgical procedure, including, but not limited to the following:
    1. Diabetes with diabetic retinopathy requiring photocoagulation management through clear media; OR
    2. To monitor progression of glaucoma where opaque media limits visualization of the optic nerve or visual field assessment; OR
    3. Preparation for vitrectomy; OR
    4. Preparation for surgical repair of retinal detachment.

Not Medically Necessary:

Cataract removal surgery in adults is considered not medically necessary when the criteria specified above are not met, or when either of the following apply:

Coding

The following codes for treatments and procedures applicable to this guideline are included below for informational purposes. Inclusion or exclusion of a procedure, diagnosis or device code(s) does not constitute or imply member coverage or provider reimbursement policy. Please refer to the member's contract benefits in effect at the time of service to determine coverage or non-coverage of these services as it applies to an individual member. 

CPT 
66830Removal of secondary membranous cataract (opacified posterior lens capsule and/or anterior hyaloid) with corneo-scleral section, with or without iridectomy (iridocapsulotomy, iridocapsulectomy)
66840Removal of lens material; aspiration technique, 1 or more stages
66850Removal of lens material; phacofragmentation technique (mechanical or ultrasonic) (eg, phacoemulsification), with aspiration
66852Removal of lens material; pars plana approach, with or without vitrectomy
66920Removal of lens material; intracapsular
66940Removal of lens material; extracapsular (other than 66840, 66850, 66852)
66982Extracapsular cataract removal with insertion of intraocular lens prosthesis (1-stage procedure), manual or mechanical technique (eg, irrigation and aspiration or phacoemulsification), complex, requiring devices or techniques not generally used in routine cataract surgery (eg, iris expansion device, suture support for intraocular lens, or primary posterior capsulorrhexis) or performed on patients in the amblyogenic development stage
66983Intracapsular cataract extraction with insertion of intraocular lens prosthesis (1 stage procedure)
66984Extracapsular cataract removal with insertion of intraocular lens prosthesis (1 stage procedure), manual or mechanical technique (eg, irrigation and aspiration or phacoemulsification)
66985Insertion of intraocular lens prosthesis (secondary implant), not associated with concurrent cataract removal
  
HCPCS 
C1780Lens, intraocular (new technology)
V2630Anterior chamber intraocular lens
V2631Iris supported intraocular lens
V2632Posterior chamber intraocular lens
Q1004New technology intraocular lens category 4 as defined in Federal Register notice
Q1005New technology intraocular lens category 5 as defined in Federal Register notice
  
ICD-9 Procedure[For dates of service prior to 10/01/2015]
13.11Intracapsular extraction of lens by temporal inferior route
13.19Other intracapsular extractin of lens
13.2Extracapsular extraction of lens by linear extraction technique
13.3Extracapsular extraction of lens by simple aspiration (and irrigation) technique
13.41Phacoemulsification and aspiration of cataract
13.42Mechanical phacofragmentation and aspiration of cataract by posterior route
13.43Mechanical phacofragmentation and other aspiration of cataract
13.51Extracapsular extraction of lens by temporal inferior route
13.59Other extracapsluar extraction of lens
13.70Insertion of pseudophakos, not otherwise specified
13.71Insertion of intraocular lens prosthesis at time of cataract extraction, one-stage
13.72Secondary insertion of intraocular lens prosthesis
  
ICD-9 Diagnosis[For dates of service prior to 10/01/2015]
 All diagnoses
  
ICD-10 Procedure[For dates of service on or after 10/01/2015]
08DJ3ZZExtraction of right lens, percutaneous approach
08DK3ZZExtraction of left lens, percutaneous approach
08RJ3JZReplacement of right lens with synthetic substitute, percutaneous approach
08RK3JZReplacement of left lens with synthetic substitute, percutaneous approach
  
ICD-10 Diagnosis[For dates of service on or after 10/01/2015]
 All diagnoses
  
Discussion/General Information

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009), cataracts are the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, accounting for 50% of blindness representing 20.5 million (17.2%) Americans aged 40 and older. The Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group estimates the number of individuals with cataracts is estimated to increase by 50% affecting nearly 30.1 million Americans by 2020, based on the U.S. Census population estimates (EDPRG, 2004).

Clouding of the lens of the eye is common in older persons and rarely seen in newborn children. This condition is generally known as "cataracts," but more specifically as age-related cataracts (also known as senile cataracts) or when present in previously unaffected adults and as "congenital cataracts" when present in newborn infants. Other secondary cataracts include drug-induced cataracts and traumatic cataracts. The only available treatment for cataracts at this time is surgical removal of the cataract and replacement of the affected lens with a prosthetic lens. A variety of risk factors have been associated with cataract development. The most common risk factors include diabetes mellitus (DM), long-term corticosteroid (topical, systemic or inhaled oral) use and history of prior intraocular surgeries (AAO, 2011).

The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) issued guidelines for the use of cataract surgery in the adult eye in 2011, which states:

Cataract surgery should be recommended when indicated because of proven effectiveness in enhancing quality of life.

Indications for surgical management

The primary indication for surgery is visual function that no longer meets the patient's needs and for which cataract surgery provides a reasonable likelihood of improved vision. Other indications for a cataract removal include the following:

Surgery for a visually impairing cataract should not be performed under the following circumstances:

The extracapsular cataract eye (ECCE) surgical procedure is used primarily for advanced cataracts where the lens is too dense to dissolve into fragments. This procedure involves the removal of the lens nucleus in one piece with an incision of approximately 10-14 mm, leaving the capsule in place. This technique provides added support and improves the healing ability of the eye. The most commonly performed type of ECCE surgery in the United States is phacoemulsification. Phacoemulsification, a form of extracapsular cataract extraction, is also called small incision surgery, softens and breaks apart the lens using ultrasound energy and aspirated from the eye through a smaller incision (2-4 mm). After the cataract surgery is completed a foldable plastic or silicone lens may be passed through the smaller incision. The advantage of phacoemulsification technique includes a more rapid visual recovery due to the small incision size. The small incision may self-seal or require 1-2 sutures, decreasing likelihood of suture-induced astigmatism.

The intracapsular cataract eye (ICCE) surgical procedure is rarely performed in the United States. This technique involves the removal of the entire lens and surrounding capsule. It has a higher rate of complications when compared to the modern ECCE.

A Cochrane review (Riaz, 2006) describes results from a meta-analysis of seventeen trials involving 9,627 individuals randomized for surgical interventions for age-related cataracts. The authors concluded that:

Phacoemulsification gives a better outcome than ECCE with a larger wound. We also found evidence that ECCE with a posterior chamber lens implant provides better visual outcome than ICCE with aphakic glasses. The long term effect of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) needs to be assessed in larger populations. The data also suggests that ICCE with an anterior chamber lens implant is an effective alternative to ICCE with aphakic glasses, with similar safety. Phacoemulsification provides the best visual outcomes but will only be accessible to the poorer countries if the cost of phacoemulsification and foldable IOLs decrease. Manual small incision cataract surgery provides early visual rehabilitation and comparable visual outcome to PHACO. It has better visual outcomes than ECCE and can be used in any clinic that is currently carrying out ECCE with IOL. Further research from developing regions are needed to compare the cost and longer term outcomes of these procedures e.g. PCO and corneal endothelial cell damage.

A retrospective study by Greenberg and colleagues (2011) reported on the prevalence and predictors of ocular complications associated with cataract removal in 45,082 participants undergoing care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system. Diabetes mellitus (40.6%), chronic pulmonary disease (21.2%), age-related macular degeneration (14.4%), and diabetes with ophthalmic manifestations (14.0%) were the most common preoperative systemic and ocular comorbidities reported. Ocular complications most commonly reported among study participants included posterior capsular tear, anterior vitrectomy (or both) during surgery (3.5%) and posterior capsular opacification after surgery (4.2%). Identified predictors of complications included African- Americans, individuals who were either divorced or never married, DM with ophthalmic manifestations, traumatic  cataract, and previous ocular surgery. The authors concluded "Further large studies are warranted on the prevalence and predictors of ocular complications associated with cataract surgery for United States patient populations outside the VHA, including the role of factors such as resident training and surgeon volume."

Definitions

Cataract: Cloudiness of the natural lens inside the eye which can blur vision.

Cornea: The clear, transparent cover over the iris and pupil on the front part of the eye. The cornea is the first part of the eye that bends (or refracts) the light and provides most of the focusing power of the eye.

Crystalline (natural) lens: The eye's natural lens that bends light (refracts) to provide some of the focusing power of the eye. The eye's natural lens is able to change shape allowing the eye to focus at different distances.

Glaucoma: A disease characterized by destruction of the nerve fiber layer of the optic disc.

Optic nerve: The nerve that carries images of what is seen from the eye to the brain.

Retina: The light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the inside of the eye and sends visual messages through the optic nerve to the brain.

References

Peer Reviewed Publications: 

  1. Gray CS, Karimova G, Hildreth AJ, et al. Recovery of visual and functional disability following cataract surgery in older people: Sunderland Cataract Study. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006; 32:60-66.
  2. Greenberg PB, Tseng VL, Wu WC, et al. Prevalence and predictors of ocular complications associated with cataract surgery in United States veterans. Ophthalmology. 2011; 118(3):507-514.
  3. Koo E, Chang JR, Agrón E, et al. Ten-year incidence rates of age-related cataract in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS): AREDS report no. 33. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2013; 20(2):71-81. 
  4. Lundstrom M, Barry P, Henry Y, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for cataract surgery: Guidelines based on data in the European Registry of quality outcomes for cataract and refractive surgery database. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012; 38(6):1086-1093.
  5. Obstbaum SA, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, et al. Utilization, Appropriate Care, and Quality of Life for Patients with Cataracts. Ophthalmology. 2006; 113(10):1878-1882.
  6. Riaz Y, Mehta JS, Wormald R, et al. Surgical interventions for age-related cataract. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD001323.

Government Agency, Medical Society, and Other Authoritative Publications: 

  1. American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). Preferred Practice Patterns®: Cataract in the adult eye. Updated October 2011. For additional information: http://one.aao.org/ce/practiceguidelines/. Accessed on March 14, 2014.
  2. Novitas Solutions, Inc. Jurisdiction. Local Coverage Determination for Cataract Surgery (L27479) Revised 8/22/2013. Available at: http://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/indexes/national-and-local-indexes.aspx. Accessed on March 14, 2014.
  3. The Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group. Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004; 122:477-485.
Websites for Additional Information
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vision Health Initiative (VHI). Common eye disorders. April 2013. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basic_information/eye_disorders.htm. Accessed on March 14, 2014.
  2. MedlinePlus. Cataract. Updated June 25, 2013. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cataract.html. Accessed on March 14, 2014.
  3. National Eye Institute (NEI). Cataract. What you should know. Updated September 2003. Available at: http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/cataract/webcataract.pdf. Accessed on March 14, 2014.
  4. National Eye Institute (NEI). Facts about cataract. Updated September 2009. Available at: http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/cataract/cataract_facts.asp. Accessed on March 14, 2014.
  5. National Library of Medicine. Medical Encyclopedia: Cataract removal. Updated August 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002957.htm. Accessed on March 14, 2014.
  6. World Health Organization. Prevention of blindness and visual impairment. Available at: http://www.who.int/blindness/causes/priority/en/index1.html. Accessed on March 14, 2014.
Index

Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE)
Intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE)
Phacoemulsification

Document History

Status

Date

Action

New05/15/2014Medical Policy & Technology Assessment Committee (MPTAC) review. Initial document development.